Smokers’ Lung Malignant Tumor Can Contain Up To 50000 Genetic Mutations. Part 3 of 3

Smokers’ Lung Malignant Tumor Can Contain Up To 50000 Genetic Mutations – Part 3 of 3

And “In this particular case, it’s smoking-related. When you have a patient who has a long history of smoking, you can tell that most of the mutations are mediated by carcinogens, so we prevent that we will observe a lot more mutations in such a patient”. The same is likely to be true of melanoma, because much of the damage here is caused by UV radiation but the number of mutations in breast and prostate cancer, for instance, is qualified to be much lower al saudia tibbi foundation products list.

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Smokers’ Lung Malignant Tumor Can Contain Up To 50000 Genetic Mutations. Part 2 of 3

Smokers’ Lung Malignant Tumor Can Contain Up To 50000 Genetic Mutations – Part 2 of 3

So “If you look at the number of cigarettes this person has consumed over his lifetime versus the enumerate of mutations accumulated, for every three cigarettes you have you get a new mutation”. The researchers were initially surprised to hit upon so many genetic mutations – some new and some previously known – surprised enough to carry additional analyses to validate the findings.


They found that many of the mutations were redundant, meaning that many of them affected components of the same pathway. “The key to survival for cancer cells is redundancy: hit multiple pathways, mutate as much as you at all can and then you can survive anything that comes at you”.

The authors point out that this is one analysis from one patient. Other patients with lung cancer will have different mutational profiles, as will other tumor types. And this specific tumor was smoking-related, with all of the damage conferred by cigarette carcinogens.

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Smokers’ Lung Malignant Tumor Can Contain Up To 50000 Genetic Mutations. Part 1 of 3

Smokers’ Lung Malignant Tumor Can Contain Up To 50000 Genetic Mutations – Part 1 of 3

Smokers’ Lung Malignant Tumor Can Contain Up To 50000 Genetic Mutations. Malignant lung tumors may control not one, not two, but potentially tens of thousands of genetic mutations which, together, donate to the development of the cancer. A sample from a lung tumor from a heavy smoker revealed 50000 mutations, according to a report in the May 27 stream of Nature. “People in the field have always known that we’re going to end up having to deal with multiple mutations,” said Dr Hossein Borghaei, director of the Lung and Head and Neck Cancer Risk Assessment Program at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia. “This tells us that we’re not just dealing with one chamber line that’s gone crazy.

We’re dealing with multiple mutations. Every viable pathway that could possibly go wrong is probably found among all these mutations and changes”. The revelation does pose “additional difficulties” for researchers looking for targets for better treatments or even a cure for lung and other types of cancer, said meditate on senior author Zemin Zhang, a senior scientist with Genentech Inc in South San Francisco.

Frustrating though the findings may seem, the knowledge gleaned from this and other studies “gives investigators a starting pith to go back and look and see if there is a common pathway, a common protein that a couple of different drugs could attack and perhaps slow the progression”. The researchers examined cells from lung cancer samples (non-small-cell lung cancer) connection to a 51-year-old man who had smoked 25 cigarettes a day for 15 years.

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Using Non-Recommended Drugs For The Treatment Of Diabetes. Part 3 of 3

Using Non-Recommended Drugs For The Treatment Of Diabetes – Part 3 of 3

Commenting on the new study, Dr Luigi Meneghini, professor and director of clinical operations in the division of endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, said “there was still some intermingling about the negative effects of Avandia. Physicians tend to be skeptical and not change their habits unless there is solid evidence, and with Avandia the evidence was not as solid as one would want. But, for the more than half of physicians there was clearly a change in the way they prescribe”.

With the new restrictions the FDA has placed on Avandia, Meneghini believes that very few doctors will be prescribing the drug anymore. Meneghini added that the FDA is musical good at getting warning information out to doctors. “Whether the warning is heeded depends on the availability of the drug, the importance of the drug and patient desires”. Also, many doctors stopped prescribing Avandia when the tip came out due to fear of liability bra size for breast reduction. “That drove a lot of the decisions”.

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Using Non-Recommended Drugs For The Treatment Of Diabetes. Part 2 of 3

Using Non-Recommended Drugs For The Treatment Of Diabetes – Part 2 of 3

Another factor could be the policy of state health indemnification plans, including Medicaid, in terms of covering drugs. Also, prominent doctors in given areas can influence the choice of drugs other doctors make. And drug-company marketing may play a role. “At this substance we don’t have good insight into these differences”.


This problem isn’t unique to Avandia. “This is not uncommon with a lot of drugs. This is a good case example”. The report was published in the Nov 17, 2010 printing of the New England Journal of Medicine.

The study also found that the American Diabetes Association’s January 2009 consensus statement advising against prescribing Avandia appeared to have had a “negligible influence” on trends in its use. The survey authors think the FDA could do a better job of alerting all doctors about warning labels. “The FDA could provide a tool for doctors and patients to show the risks and benefits of common on the drug”.

As for Avandia, in September the FDA introduced further restrictions on use of the drug. The agency is requiring Avandia’s maker, GlaxoSmithKline, to develop a program that will limit access to the sedative to patients for whom other treatments have not worked. Also, doctors will have to state and document a patient’s eligibility to use Avandia. They will also have to tell patients about the cardiovascular safety risks associated with Avandia, and patients will have to accede that they understand those risks.

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Using Non-Recommended Drugs For The Treatment Of Diabetes. Part 1 of 3

Using Non-Recommended Drugs For The Treatment Of Diabetes – Part 1 of 3

Using Non-Recommended Drugs For The Treatment Of Diabetes. Using the disputable diabetes drug Avandia as an example, new research finds that doctors’ prescribing patterns restyle across the country in response to warnings about medications from the US Food and Drug Administration. The result is that patients may be exposed to different levels of risk depending on where they live, the researchers said. “We were looking at the change black-box warnings for drugs have at a national level, and, more specifically, at a geographical level, and how these warnings are incorporated into practice,” said study command researcher Nilay D Shah, an assistant professor of health services research at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.

In 2007, the FDA required that Avandia come with a “black-box warning” – the strongest sign possible – alerting consumers that the drug was associated with an increased risk of heart attack. Before the warning, Avandia was widely prescribed throughout the United States, although regional differences existed. “There was about a two-fold metamorphosis in use before the warning – around 15,5 percent use in Oklahoma versus about 8 percent in North Dakota”.

Right after the warning, the use of Avandia dropped dramatically, from a nationwide consequential of 1,3 million monthly prescriptions in January 2007 to roughly 317000 monthly prescriptions in June 2009. “There was a huge decrease in use across the country. But there was completely a bit of residual use”.

After the FDA warning, the researchers still found as much as a three-fold difference in use across the nation. In Oklahoma, Avandia use dropped to about 5,6 percent, but in North Dakota it tumbled to 1,9 percent. The reasons for the differences aren’t clear. Some factors might subsume how doctors are made aware of FDA warnings and how they react.

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Causes Hyperactivity In Children. Part 3 of 3

Causes Hyperactivity In Children – Part 3 of 3

But Froehlich said the picture may be even more complicated. Some researchers have suggested that “people with ADHD are more favourite to smoke, and then may pass on their ADHD-related genes to their children”. Urinary tract infections also are thought to contribute to inflammation that affects the development of the brain in the fetus. Stress during pregnancy – it may be from being single or a young mother – could do the same thing.

So “However, since ADHD is associated with higher rates of teen pregnancy, it is also possible that the younger and single mothers themselves have higher rates of ADHD, and they are glancing on their ADHD-related genes to their children”. The Australian researchers called for more study on the subject The study appears online Dec 2, 2013 and in the January print outlet of the journal Pediatrics.

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Causes Hyperactivity In Children. Part 2 of 3

Causes Hyperactivity In Children – Part 2 of 3

ADHD is more established in boys. Its symptoms include distractibility, inattention and a lack of focus.


In the new study, researchers examined the medical records of nearly 13000 children and young adults who were born in Western Australia and took incitement medications for ADHD between 2003 and 2007. Stimulant drugs such as Ritalin and Adderall are typically used to treat ADHD.

The researchers compared the subjects to more than 30000 other children to foresee if there were any environmental differences. Although factors such as a mother’s younger age and smoking during pregnancy were linked to a higher risk of ADHD in children, “low birth weight, birth at greater than blazing term and breathing difficulties in the baby were not more common in the ADHD group”. What’s going on? “Chronic exposure to smoking in pregnancy may create an imbalance in chemicals that result in ADHD,” said muse about lead author Desiree Silva, a professor of pediatric medicine at the University of Western Australia.

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Causes Hyperactivity In Children. Part 1 of 3

Causes Hyperactivity In Children – Part 1 of 3

Causes Hyperactivity In Children. A experimental study from Australia sheds more light on what environmental factors might raise the risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). “Compared with mothers whose children did not have ADHD, mothers of children with ADHD were more proper to be younger, single, smoked in pregnancy, had some complications of pregnancy and labor, and were more likely to have given birth slightly earlier,” said study co-author Dr Carol Bower, a superior principal research fellow with the Center for Child Health Research at the University of Western Australia. “It did not make any difference if the child was a girl or a boy”.

The researchers did bump into that girls were less likely to have ADHD if their mothers had received the hormone oxytocin to speed up labor. Previous research had suggested its use during childbirth might actually increase the risk of ADHD. The causes of ADHD wait unclear, although evidence suggests that genes play a major role, said Dr Tanya Froehlich, an associate professor at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center.

And “Many former studies have found an association between ADHD and tobacco and alcohol exposure in the womb, prematurity and complications of pregnancy and delivery. One thing is certain: Diagnoses of ADHD have become simple in the United States. A survey released in November 2013 found that 10 percent of American children have been diagnosed with the condition, although the rapid increase in numbers seems to have leveled off.

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